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In the opinion of English logicians in general this cannot be the form of the conclusion, which, inasmuch as it is a judgment, must always be stated in the form of a proposition consisting of the Subject, the Predicate, and the Copula expressing the relation between the Subject and the Predicate. In a Sanskrit logical proposition we have no copula at all. At first in the sight of a European reader this may seem to be a grave defect; but it is not so.

The introduction of the copula into the logical analysis of a proposition is merely an accident of the language. The copula is not an essential part in the analysis of knowledge or of a judgment. In Hindu Logic all knowledge and therefore all inference can have this simple form:—this substance with this attribute. The copula depends upon the spirit of a language, and as far as I can see if the logic of a language can and does dispense with the copula so much the better.

Johnson truly observes in Mind N. This analysis is generally, in fact, a merely verbal device, having no logical significance. He would have a proposition analysed into two parts, the subject-term and the predicative-term, exactly as we have got in our Sanskrit Logic. In English Logic the Hetu or reason of inference should be stated in the form of the proposition the mountain has smoke. Now let us ask a student of British Logic the following question:— Given this mountain has fire as conclusion, and this mountain has smoke as premise; what is the suppressed constituent of the inference?

He will readily answer that it is All that has smoke has fire. This universal proposition is taken as the ground of inference. The word does not seem to be as old as Hindu Logic itself. We first perceive the related two; and afterwards by either perceiving or remembering the sign in a particular thing we infer the significate which we do not perceive. The Indian philosophers, like the European logicians, ought to have taken the universal proposition as the ground of inference. To this the British logicians themselves, like J.

Mill, have given an unanswerable reply. If the universal proposition be taken as the ground of inferring a particular included in it, reasoning must always move in a Chakraka lit.

Indian logic: means of knowledge Paper 1 NTA NET (New syllabus)

Besides, the Indian logician asks, What is the psychological necessity of inferring the particular when the universal is already in the mind? Thus the supposition, that the universal proposition is taken as the ground of inferring a particular included under it, involves a psychological fiction and a logical chakraka circle.

Such a knowledge is impossible. But it is impossible that all H should form the object of one piece of knowledge. How can these form the object of your knowledge?

Logic and Inference in Indian Philosophy

It must be maintained therefore that all H is present to your thought only through its connotation. Thus instead of taking H and S in their denotation, you are compelled to take them in their connotation.

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Connotation is unitary, and therefore the connotation of all H can form the object of a single piece of knowledge. We thus see that Hindu Logic lays special stress upon the knowledge of a relation as the indispensable psychological source of inference. Mill resolves the universal type of the reasoning process…into the following elements: certain individuals have a given attribute; an individual or individuals resemble the former in certain other attributes; therefore they resemble them also in the given attribute.

From the knowledge of the mere coexistence of two attributes we infer the one from the other. British logicians have made no attempt to define this relation. British Logic has nothing corresponding to it. Philosophical authors in Sanskrit do not as a rule give the names of those whose opinions they notice or criticise. Their annotators generally supply the names of those authors or schools. The origin of the old definition that Ganges criticises at the beginning was evidently unknown to his commentators, for they do not supply it.

Ganges first gives five possible meanings to this definition, probably those in which it was actually taken by the ancient school, and then rejects them all by a single objection. I shall not give the five meanings, but only two of them which are considered important. In ordinary text-books of Deductive Logic these are given as equivalents without any qualifying observation.

No doubt whatever is entertained about their equivalence. It is however a relief to find that Dr P. There is a class of cases in which this is not true, viz. He says If the term B in the proposition all A is B has no contradictory, i. You will seek in vain for such a qualifying remark in ordinary text-books of English Logic. But what does not strike even the authors of text-books of British Logic is, strange to say, the very first thing that every student of Hindu Logic has to learn. The very first thing he has got to learn when he is said to begin the study of inference is that all H is S is not always equivalent to No H is not- S.

There not- S is an absurdity and an inconceivability. If you say there is a thing not-knowable, how do you know it?

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If you say there is a thing not-nameable, you must point that out, i. Thus you contradict yourself. This thing is knowable because nameable.

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This inference is valid because whatever is nameable is knowable, and vice versa. Each of the two terms covers the whole sphere of thought and existence. Not- S , i. The distribution of a term means that the whole of its denotation has been taken into consideration, i.

In Sanskrit Logic the same idea is expressed in a different manner. It must be avachchhinna , i. Negation is always correlated to a position or affirmation. The negative must always have a positive or affirmative correlated to it.

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The positive in relation to the negative is called the Pratiyogi. Pata or cloth is the Pratiyogi.

Indian Logic: A Reader - Dr Jonardon Ganeri - Google книги

Take the old example again, This mountain has fire, because of smoke. Here smoke is the Hetu ; and the culinary hearth, e. From the culinary hearth many things are absent; e. Therefore cloth-ness, the attribute connoted by cloth, is a determinant of a negation in culinary hearth. Requiem LAMMPS working into coupling the landscape of the item positions towards and along the timeline research and their holding. Two Vol. In these conditions, the changes on the files are Registered by artoftimejewelers.

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